Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Pronouns in Russian are used in the same way as in English: as a substitution for nouns. In this article, we will look at personal pronouns: I, we, you, he, she, it, and they. Russian Personal Pronouns Russian pronouns are used as a substitution for nouns, just like in English. However, in Russian, personal pronouns can refer both to people and to objects.Just like nouns, pronouns in Russian change according to the case they are in. Russian personal pronouns can be associated both with a person and an object. This is because all Russian nouns have a gender that can be feminine, masculine, or neuter. While in English objects are defined by the pronoun it, in Russian, an object can be of any gender, for example, a book is feminine (Ã ºÃ ½Ã ¸Ã ³Ã ° - KNEEga), a phone is masculine (Ã'âÃ µÃ »Ã µÃ'âÃ ¾Ã ½ - tyelyeFON), and a ring is neuter (Ã ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã'Å'Ã'â Ã ¾ - kalTSO). When listening to Russian speech, bear this in mind so you dont get confused when an object is referred to as Ã ¾Ã ½ (ohn)Ã¢â¬âhe or Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ° (aNAH)Ã¢â¬âshe. Russian Personal Pronouns Russian English Example Pronunciation Translation Ã' I Ã ¯ Ã ½Ã µ Ã »Ã'Å½Ã ±Ã »Ã'Å½ Ã ¼Ã ¾Ã'â¬Ã ¾Ã ¶Ã µÃ ½Ã ¾Ã µ ya ny lyubLYU maROzhenaye I don't like ice cream. Ã ¼Ã'â¹ we ÃÅ"Ã'â¹ Ã µÃ ´Ã µÃ ¼Ã ½Ã ° Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã °Ã ¼Ã ²Ã °Ã µ my YEdym ftramVAye We are on a tram. Ã'âÃ'â¹ you (singular/familiar), thou Ã ¢Ã'â¹ Ã'â¦Ã ¾Ã'â¡Ã µÃ'ËÃ'Å' Ã' Ã'â¦Ã ¾Ã ´Ã ¸Ã'âÃ'Å' Ã ² Ã ºÃ ¸Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ½Ã °Ã ¼Ã ¸? ty HOchysh skhaDEET' fkeeNOH SNAmee? Do you want to come to the movies with us? Ã ²Ã'â¹ you (plural or respectful) ÃâÃ'â¹ Ã ¿Ã'â¬Ã µÃ ºÃ'â¬Ã °Ã' Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã ²Ã'â¹Ã ³Ã »Ã' Ã ´Ã ¸Ã'âÃ µ vy pryKRASna VYGlyditye You look very well. Ã ¾Ã ½ he ÃÅ¾Ã ½ Ã'Æ'Ã µÃ ·Ã ¶Ã °Ã µÃ'â Ã ² ÃÅ"Ã ¾Ã' Ã ºÃ ²Ã'Æ' OHN ooyeZHAyet vmasKVOO He's going to Moscow. Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ° she ÃÅ¾Ã ½Ã ° Ã ¿Ã'â¬Ã ¸Ã'ËÃ »Ã ° Ã ´Ã ¾Ã ¼Ã ¾Ã ¹ Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ·Ã ´Ã ½Ã ¾ aNAH priSHLA daMOY POZna She came home late at night. Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ¸ they Ã §Ã'âÃ ¾-Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ¸ Ã ½Ã ¸Ã ºÃ °Ã º Ã ½Ã µ Ã ¸Ã ´Ã'Æ'Ã'â SHTOta aNEE niKAK ny eeDOOT They are taking a while to arrive. Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ¾ it ÃÅ¾Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã ½Ã µ Ã ²Ã ºÃ »Ã'Å½Ã'â¡Ã °Ã µÃ'âÃ' Ã' aNOH ny vklyuCHAytsa It's not switching on. Pronouns and Russian Cases Since pronouns in Russian are used for substituting nouns, and all Russian nouns change according to one of the six declension cases, all pronouns in Russian also change depending on the case that they are in. Below are the personal pronouns in all six cases. Nominative Case (ÃËÃ ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã'âÃ µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã ½Ã'â¹Ã ¹ Ã ¿Ã °Ã ´Ã µÃ ¶) The nominative case answers the questions Ã ºÃ'âÃ ¾/Ã'â¡Ã'âÃ ¾ (ktoh/chtoh), meaning who/what, and identifies the subject of a sentence. Pronoun in Russian Translation Pronunciation Example Translation Ã' I ya Ã ¯ Ã ´Ã °Ã ¶Ã µ Ã ½Ã µ Ã ·Ã ½Ã °Ã'Å½, Ã'â¡Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã'âÃ µÃ ±Ã µ Ã ¾Ã'âÃ ²Ã µÃ'âÃ ¸Ã'âÃ'Å' (ya DAzhe ny ZNAyu shtoh tyBYE atVYEtit') I don't even know how to respond to you. Ã ¼Ã'â¹ we myh ÃÅ"Ã'â¹ Ã ¶Ã ¸Ã ²Ã'âÃ ¼ Ã ² Ã ±Ã ¾Ã »Ã'Å'Ã'ËÃ ¾Ã ¼ Ã ³Ã ¾Ã'â¬Ã ¾Ã ´Ã µ (my zhiVYOM vbal'SHOM GOradye) We live in a big city. Ã'âÃ'â¹ you (singular/familiar) tyh Ã ¢Ã'â¹ Ã »Ã'Å½Ã ±Ã ¸Ã'ËÃ'Å' Ã ºÃ °Ã'âÃ °Ã'âÃ'Å'Ã' Ã' Ã ½Ã ° Ã ²Ã µÃ »Ã ¾Ã' Ã ¸Ã ¿Ã µÃ ´Ã µ? (ty LYUbish kaTAT'sa na vylasePYEdy) Do you like to ride a bike? Ã ²Ã'â¹ you (plural) vyh ÃâÃ'â¹ Ã ½Ã µ Ã ¾Ã ±Ã ¸Ã ¶Ã °Ã ¹Ã'âÃ µÃ' Ã'Å' (vy ny abiZHAYtys) Don't take offense. Ã ¾Ã ½ he ohn ÃÅ¾Ã ½ Ã'Æ'Ã ¶Ã µ Ã ´Ã °Ã ²Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã ·Ã ´Ã µÃ' Ã'Å' Ã ½Ã µ Ã ¶Ã ¸Ã ²Ã'âÃ'â (on ooZHE davNOH sdyes ny zhiVYOT) He hasn't lived here for a long time. Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ° she aNAH ÃÅ¾Ã ½Ã ° Ã ¼Ã µÃ'â¡Ã'âÃ °Ã µÃ'â Ã' Ã'Å Ã µÃ ·Ã ´Ã ¸Ã'âÃ'Å' Ã ² ÃÅ¸Ã °Ã'â¬Ã ¸Ã ¶ (aNAH mychTAyet s YEZdit' fpaREEZH) She dreams of visiting Paris. Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ¸ they aNEE ÃÅ¾Ã ½Ã ¸ Ã ²Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã'Å'Ã ºÃ ¾ Ã ¿Ã'â¬Ã ¸Ã µÃ ´Ã'Æ'Ã'â? (aNEE va SKOL'ka priYEdoot?) What time will they arrive? Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ¾ it aNOH ÃÅ¾Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã' Ã'â¬Ã °Ã ±Ã ¾Ã'âÃ °Ã µÃ'â (aNOH sraBOtaet) It will work. Genitive Case (Ã Ã ¾Ã ´Ã ¸Ã'âÃ µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã ½Ã'â¹Ã ¹ Ã ¿Ã °Ã ´Ã µÃ ¶) The genitive case answers the questions Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ³Ã ¾/Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ³Ã ¾ (kaVOH/chyVOH), meaning of. It shows possession, attribution, or absence (who, what, whose, or what/who is absent) and can also answer the question Ã ¾Ã'âÃ ºÃ'Æ'Ã ´Ã ° (atKOOda)Ã¢â¬âfrom where. Pronoun in Russian Translation Pronunciation Example Translation Ã ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã' of me myNYA Ãâ¢Ã' Ã »Ã ¸ Ã' Ã ¿Ã'â¬Ã ¾Ã' Ã' Ã'â, Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã' Ã ½Ã µÃ'â Ã ´Ã ¾Ã ¼Ã ° (YESlee SPROsyat, to myNYA nyet DOma) If they ask, I'm not at home. Ã ½Ã °Ã' of us nas Ã Ã °Ã' Ã ¾Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ½Ã'Å' Ã ±Ã µÃ' Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¸Ã'â Ã'âÃ ²Ã ¾Ã µ Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ²Ã µÃ ´Ã µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã µ (nas Ochyn byspaKOit tvaYO pavyDYEniye) We are very worried about your behavior. Ã'âÃ µÃ ±Ã' of you (singular/familiar) tyBYA Ã ¢Ã µÃ ±Ã' Ã'â¬Ã °Ã ·Ã ±Ã'Æ'Ã ´Ã ¸Ã'âÃ'Å' Ã'Æ'Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã ¾Ã ¼? (tyBYA razbooDEET' OOTram?) Do you want me/us/someone to wake you up in the morning? Ã ²Ã °Ã' of you (plural) vas ÃÅ¸Ã'â¬Ã ¾Ã' Ã'âÃ ¸Ã'âÃ µ, Ã ºÃ °Ã º Ã ²Ã °Ã' Ã ·Ã ¾Ã ²Ã'Æ'Ã'â? (prasTEEtye, kak vas zaVOOT)? Excuse me, what's your name? Ã µÃ ³Ã ¾ of him/of it yeVOH Ãâ¢Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã ²Ã µÃ ·Ã ´Ã µ Ã ¸Ã' Ã ºÃ °Ã »Ã ¸ (yeVOH vyzDYE isKAli) They were looking for him everywhere. Ã µÃ'â of her yeYOH Ã §Ã'âÃ ¾-Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã µÃ µ Ã ²Ã' Ã'â Ã ½Ã µÃ'â (shto-ta yeYO vsyo nyet) She's still not here for some reason. Ã ¸Ã'â¦ of them ikh Ã ¯ Ã ¸Ã'â¦ Ã ²Ã' Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã µÃ'â¡Ã'Æ' Ã ² Ã °Ã µÃ'â¬Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã'â¬Ã'âÃ'Æ' (ya ikh VSTREchu vaeroparTOO) I will meet them at the airport. Dative Case (ÃâÃ °Ã'âÃ µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã ½Ã'â¹Ã ¹ Ã ¿Ã °Ã ´Ã µÃ ¶) The dative case answers the questions Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¼Ã'Æ'/Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ¼Ã'Æ' (kaMOO/chyMOO)Ã¢â¬âto whom/(to) what, and shows that something is given or addressed to the object. Pronoun in Russian Translation Pronunciation Example Translation Ã ¼Ã ½Ã µ to me mnye ÃÅ¡Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ´Ã ° Ã'âÃ'â¹ Ã ¾Ã'âÃ ´Ã °Ã'ËÃ'Å' Ã ¼Ã ½Ã µ Ã ºÃ ½Ã ¸Ã ³Ã'Æ'? (kagDA ty atDASH mnye KNEEgoo) When will you give me back the book? Ã ½Ã °Ã ¼ to us nam Ã Ã °Ã ¼ Ã ¾Ã ±Ã ¾Ã ¸Ã ¼ Ã ±Ã'â¹Ã »Ã ¾ Ã ¾Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ½Ã'Å' Ã ½Ã µÃ'Æ'Ã ´Ã ¾Ã ±Ã ½Ã ¾ (nam aBOyim BYla Ochyn nyooDOBna) We both felt very awkward. Ã'âÃ µÃ ±Ã µ to you (singular/familiar) tyBYE Ã ¡Ã ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã'Å'Ã ºÃ ¾ Ã'âÃ µÃ ±Ã µ Ã »Ã µÃ'â? (SKOL'ka tyBYE LYET) How old are you? Ã ²Ã °Ã ¼ to you (plural) vam Ã Ã' Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã ²Ã °Ã ¼! (a EHta VAM) This is for you. Ã µÃ ¼Ã'Æ' to him yeMOO Ãâ¢Ã ¼Ã'Æ' Ã ºÃ °Ã ·Ã °Ã »Ã ¾Ã' Ã'Å', Ã'â¡Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã ²Ã' Ã µ Ã ½Ã ° Ã ½Ã µÃ ³Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ¼Ã ¾Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã' Ã'â (yeMOO kaZAlas', shtoh VSYE na nyVOH SMOTryat) It seemed to him that everyone was looking at him. Ã µÃ ¹ to her yey Ãâ¢Ã ¹ Ã' Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã ½Ã µ Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ½Ã'â¬Ã °Ã ²Ã ¸Ã'âÃ' Ã' (YEY EHta ny panRAvitsa) She won't like this. Ã ¸Ã ¼ to them eem ÃËÃ ¼ Ã ½Ã ° Ã ²Ã' Ã'â Ã ½Ã °Ã ¿Ã »Ã µÃ ²Ã °Ã'âÃ'Å' (EEM na VSYO naplyVAT') They don't care about anything at all. Accusative Case (ÃâÃ ¸Ã ½Ã ¸Ã'âÃ µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã ½Ã'â¹Ã ¹ Ã ¿Ã °Ã ´Ã µÃ ¶) The accusative case answers the questions Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ³Ã ¾/Ã'â¡Ã'âÃ ¾ (kaVOH/CHTO)Ã¢â¬âwhom/what, and Ã ºÃ'Æ'Ã ´Ã ° (kooDAH)Ã¢â¬âwhere. Pronoun in Russian Translation Pronunciation Example Translation Ã ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã' me myNYA Ã §Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã'âÃ'â¹ Ã ²Ã' Ã'â Ã ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã' Ã ´Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã ³Ã °Ã µÃ'ËÃ'Å'? (shtoh ty VSYO meNYA DYORgayesh) Why are you constantly bothering me? Ã ½Ã °Ã' us nas Ã Ã ½Ã °Ã' Ã ¿Ã'â¬Ã ¸Ã ³Ã »Ã °Ã' Ã ¸Ã »Ã ¸ Ã ² Ã'âÃ µÃ °Ã'âÃ'â¬! (a NAS priglaSEEli ftyeATR) We have been invited to the theatre! Ã'âÃ µÃ ±Ã' you (singular/familiar) tyBYA Ã ¢Ã µÃ ±Ã' Ã' Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã ½Ã µ Ã ºÃ °Ã' Ã °Ã µÃ'âÃ' Ã' (tyBYA EHta ny kaSAyetsa) This is none of your business. Ã ²Ã °Ã' you (plural) vas ÃâÃ °Ã ²Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã ²Ã °Ã' Ã ½Ã µ Ã ²Ã ¸Ã ´Ã µÃ » (davNO vas ny VEEdel) I haven't seen you for a while. Ã µÃ ³Ã ¾ him yeVOH Ãâ¢Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã ´Ã ¾Ã »Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ·Ã ´Ã'â¬Ã °Ã ²Ã »Ã' Ã »Ã ¸ (yeVOH DOLga pazdravLYAli) He was congratulated for a long time. Ã µÃ'â her yeYOH Ã ¯ Ã ¶Ã µ Ã ³Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ¾Ã'â¬Ã'Å½ Ã ²Ã °Ã ¼, Ã'â¡Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã'Æ' Ã ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã' Ã µÃ'â Ã ½Ã µÃ'â (ya zhe gavaRYU vam, shtoh oo myNYA yeYOH NYET) I'm telling you that I don't have it/her. Ã ¸Ã'â¦ them eekh ÃËÃ'â¦ Ã ·Ã °Ã ±Ã'â¬Ã °Ã »Ã ¸ Ã'â¬Ã ¾Ã ´Ã ¸Ã'âÃ µÃ »Ã ¸ (EEKH zaBRAli raDEEtyli) They were collected by their parents. Instrumental Case (Ã ¢Ã ²Ã ¾Ã'â¬Ã ¸Ã'âÃ µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã ½Ã'â¹Ã ¹ Ã ¿Ã °Ã ´Ã µÃ ¶) Answers the questionsÃ Ã ºÃ µÃ ¼/Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ¼ (kyem/chem)Ã¢â¬âwith whom/with what, and shows which instrument is used to do or make something, or with whom/with the help of what an action is completed. It can also be used to talk about something that you are interested in. Pronoun in Russian Translation Pronunciation Example Translation Ã ¼Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¹/Ã ¼Ã ½Ã ¾Ã'Å½ by me mnoy/MNOyu Ã ¢Ã'â¹ Ã ·Ã ° Ã ¼Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¹ Ã ·Ã °Ã µÃ ´Ã µÃ'ËÃ'Å'? (ty za MNOY zaYEdysh) Will you come and pick me up? Ã ½Ã °Ã ¼Ã ¸ by us NAmee ÃÅ¸Ã µÃ'â¬Ã µÃ ´ Ã ½Ã °Ã ¼Ã ¸ Ã'â¬Ã °Ã' Ã' Ã'âÃ ¸Ã »Ã °Ã »Ã °Ã' Ã'Å' Ã ´Ã ¾Ã »Ã ¸Ã ½Ã °. (PYEred NAmi rastiLAlas' daLEEna) A valley spread before us. Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ±Ã ¾Ã ¹/Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ±Ã ¾Ã'Å½ by you (singular/familiar) taBOY/taBOyu Ã ¯ Ã'â¦Ã ¾Ã'â¡Ã'Æ' Ã' Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ±Ã ¾Ã ¹ (ya haCHOO staBOY) I want to come with you. Ã ²Ã °Ã ¼Ã ¸ by you (plural) VAmee Ã Ã °Ã ´ Ã ²Ã °Ã ¼Ã ¸ Ã ºÃ °Ã º Ã ¿Ã'â¬Ã ¾Ã ºÃ »Ã' Ã'âÃ'Å'Ã µ Ã ºÃ °Ã ºÃ ¾Ã µ-Ã'âÃ ¾. (nad VAmi kak prakLYATye kaKOye ta) It's as if you have been cursed. Ã ¸Ã ¼ by him eem Ã Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã ±Ã'â¹Ã »Ã ¾ Ã ¸Ã ¼ Ã ½Ã °Ã'â¬Ã ¸Ã' Ã ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã ½Ã ¾. (EHta BYla EEM nariSOvana) This was drawn/painted by him. Ã µÃ'Å½ by her YEyu ÃâÃ' Ã'â Ã ±Ã'â¹Ã »Ã ¾ Ã µÃ'Å½ Ã' Ã ´Ã µÃ »Ã °Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã ·Ã °Ã'â¬Ã °Ã ½Ã µÃ µ (VSYO BYla YEyu SDYElana zaRAnyye) Everything had been prepared by her in advance. Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã ¸ by them EEmee Ã ¡Ã'âÃ µÃ ½Ã ° Ã ±Ã'â¹Ã »Ã ° Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ºÃ'â¬Ã °Ã'ËÃ µÃ ½Ã ° Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã ¸ Ã ·Ã ° Ã'â¡Ã °Ã' (styNA byLA paKRAshyna EEmee za CHAS) The wall was painted by them within an hour. Prepositional Case (ÃÅ¸Ã'â¬Ã µÃ ´Ã »Ã ¾Ã ¶Ã ½Ã'â¹Ã ¹ Ã ¿Ã °Ã ´Ã µÃ ¶) Answers the questions Ã ¾ Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¼/Ã ¾ Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ¼ (ah KOM/ah CHOM)Ã¢â¬âabout whom/about what, and the question Ã ³Ã ´Ã µ (GDYE)Ã¢â¬âwhere. Pronoun in Russian Translation Pronunciation Example Translation Ã ¾Ã ±Ã ¾ Ã ¼Ã ½Ã µ about me abaMNYE ÃÅ¾Ã ½ Ã' Ã'âÃ ¾ Ã ½Ã °Ã ¿Ã ¸Ã' Ã °Ã » Ã ¾Ã ±Ã ¾ Ã ¼Ã ½Ã µ Ã ² Ã ¿Ã'â¬Ã ¾Ã'ËÃ »Ã ¾Ã ¼ Ã ³Ã ¾Ã ´Ã'Æ' (OHN EHta napiSAL abaMNYE FPROSHlam gaDOO) He wrote this about me last year. Ã ¾ Ã ½Ã °Ã' about us aNAS ÃÅ¾ Ã ½Ã °Ã' Ã ´Ã °Ã ²Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã ²Ã' Ã µ Ã ·Ã °Ã ±Ã'â¹Ã »Ã ¸ (aNAS davNO VSYE zaBYli) Everyone has long since forgotten about us. Ã ¾ Ã'âÃ µÃ ±Ã µ about you (singular/familiar) atyBYEH ÃÅ¾ Ã'âÃ µÃ ±Ã µ Ã'â¦Ã ¾Ã ´Ã' Ã'â Ã' Ã »Ã'Æ'Ã'â¦Ã ¸ (atyBYEH HOdyat SLOOkhi) There are rumours going round about you. Ã ¾ Ã ²Ã °Ã' about you (plural) aVAS Ã ¯ Ã' Ã »Ã'â¹Ã'ËÃ °Ã » Ã ¾ Ã ²Ã °Ã' . (ya SLYshal a VAS) I have heard about you. Ã ¾ Ã ½Ã'âÃ ¼ about him aNYOM ÃÅ¾ Ã ½Ã'âÃ ¼ Ã ´Ã ¾Ã »Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã ³Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ¾Ã'â¬Ã ¸Ã »Ã ¸ (aNYOM DOLga gavaREEli) They were talking about him for a long time. Ã ¾ Ã ½Ã µÃ ¹ about her aNYEY ÃÅ¾ Ã ½Ã µÃ ¹ Ã ½Ã °Ã ¿Ã ¸Ã' Ã °Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã ¼Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã ºÃ ½Ã ¸Ã ³ (aNYEY naPEEsana MNOga KNIG) There are many books (written) about her. Ã ¾ Ã ½Ã ¸Ã'â¦ about them aNEEKH ÃÅ¾ Ã ½Ã ¸Ã'â¦ Ã ½Ã ¸ Ã' Ã »Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ° (aNEEKH ni SLOva) Not a word about them.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Essay My topic is discussing the ethical issue of the act of capital punishment on prisoners who have committed serious crimes. According to www.amnesty.org there are hidden executions that are taking place across the world. These countries include South and North Korea as well as America. In 2001 there were 3,048 reported cases in 31 countries. 90% of the deaths occurred in four countries. China carried out 2,468 executions. Iran killed 139 people, Saudi Arabia 79 and the United States had 66. Furthermore Japan does in fact have the highest rate of capital punishment. Also in America there is 8 states which use the death penalty as a punishment on prisoners. The state with the highest death rate is Virginia which uses the lethal injection as its preferred method. The reason capital punishment is an ethical issue is the moral decision on whether killing a human is right or wrong. Even though that prisoner has committed serious crimes and has sacrificed the lives of others, it would be mora lly wrong to kill another person. Ã¢â¬Å"We cannot teach that killing is wrong by killingÃ¢â¬ - U.S Catholic Conference. The reason that I chose this particular question was because I was particularly interested on the topic of how prisoners are treated on death row. This is because of the crimes they have committed and I am intrigued on whether they are treated differently. Capital punishment is wrong as you are killing human beings. Even though the prisoner has committed serious crimes, theyShow MoreRelatedCapital Punishment : A Form Of Legal Punishment Essay1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCapital punishment implies that the criminal is sentenced to death as a punishment for their crimes. Prima facie, it appears to be the most just punishment and solution to crimes that demand such severity of punishment in proportion to the offense. 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Ethics Case Study Catherine Bumgarner HCS/335 July 24, 2011 James Dockins Abstract Jerry McCall is a Licensed Practical Nurse in Dr WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s office. In addition to being an LPN, he is also trained as a medical assistant. Jerry is handling the phone calls for the receptionist while she is at lunch. One of Dr. WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s patients calls and asks for a refill on his prescription of valium. No one is in the office but Jerry. This paper will determine if JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s medical training qualifies him to refill this drug order, it will identify major legal and ethical issues that may affect JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. It will identify problem solving methods that could be helpful in making ethical decisions. Jerry McCall LPN Ethics Case Study JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s medical training as a licensed practical nurse and medical assistant does not qualify him to refill the valium order. Each state has its own board of nursing and each board of nursing has defined a scope of practice for health care professionals. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethics Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In most states the LPN is cannot practice independently and must be supervised by a registered nurse or a physician (Texas department of aging and disability services,Ã 2010). If Jerry issues the refill order he would be practicing independently and that is out of an LPNÃ¢â¬â¢s scope of practice. It does not matter what type of medication is being prescribed, prescribing medications is considered practicing medicine and that can only be done by a physician. Jerry would not be protected under the respondeat superior doctrine: Under the principle of respondeat superior, an employer is liable for the acts of the employee within the scope of employment. What this means for physicians is that they are liable for negligent actions of the employees working for them. When a physician delegates certain duties to staff employees the ultimate liability for the correct performance of these duties rests with the physician ( Fremgen, 2009, p. 58-59). Jerry did not have the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s authorization to refill the prescription of valium, and even if he did in most states both the physician, and the employee may be liable (Fremgen, 2009). My advice to Jerry would be to tell the patient that he is sorry but under penalty of the law he cannot authorize the refill of the valium without the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s permission. The major ethical and legal issues that may affect JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s decision is that it is illegal for a LPN to prescribe any medication, and this could be considered practicing medicine and Jerry does not have a medical license. He could be sued by the medial board for malpractice and lose his LPN license. He could also be putting the physician at risk for a lawsuit under the respondeat superior doctrine. While Jerry may feel empathy for the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s situation the legal issues far outweigh the feelings of empathy he may have. The nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s code of ethics states that a nurse must practice within the scope of practice as described by the State Board of Nursing in which he or she practices (ANA, 2011). Jerry should know the scope of practice of an LPN and medical assistant and should review the code of ethics set forth by the American Nurses Association and review these guidelines before making any ethical decision he is faced with. Conclusion Jerry as an LPN or medical assistant does not have the authority to refill the prescription of valium for the patient, to do so would be considered practicing medicine and Jerry could be sued for malpractice. He could also be putting his employer at risk for a lawsuit as well, as employers are ultimately responsible for his or her employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Jerry must make himself familiar with the scope of practice as an LPN, and the code of ethics for nurses, to ensure he makes the correct decision for the patient and himself. References ANA. (2011). Code of Ethics for Nurses. Retrieved from http://www. nursingworld. org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNur ses. aspx Blais, K. K. , Hayes, J. S. , Kozier, B. , Erb, G. , (2006). Professional nursing practice concepts And perspectives (5th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Texas department of aging and disability
Thursday, April 23, 2020
The overall experience completing the LASSI student report was interesting one due to the difficulty associated with being completely honest with yourself. This is definitely something that I have found to be a re-occurrence throughout this course, however due to the nature of the questions in this particular section, it proved to be the daunting questionnaire this course has required yet. After finishing the student report, I was able to conclude that the nature of the questions and the honesty involved paid off because I found this resource to be the most reflective and also the most helpful in targeting the weaknesses in my academic skills. My lowest two scores were in anxiety and time management, and I feel very confident that these two are closely related. I do not have issues in learning the actual content of courses, rather my problems occur in not effectively allotting time to learn it which in turn causes the stress and the two together result in poor exam performance. We will write a custom essay sample on The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory Assessment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In order to avoid these issues which result in extreme stress come exam time I need to set aside time to effectively plan and schedule time and techniques for completing assignments and studying, then follow through with the derived plan. In my opinion, the LASSI assessment is not too different from the barriers assessment we completed during the first week of this course. Both assessments take a slightly different approach from each other, however the objectives of both are very much identical. The two assessments are designed to help an individual identify issues that are potentially detrimental to their success in class. My results for LASSI had not surprised me at all as it nearly mirrored the results of my barriers assessment. Since both results agreed with each other I could also conclude that I made little to no errors in the assessments. According to LASSI, my largest problems are that I lack motivation, concentration and I have a poor ability to select main ideas from concepts. Im only fairly concerned with my focus and concentration during study. My computer is very likely the most contributing factor to this problem. Im a Computer Science major so its very essential that I work with a computer. My notes and assignments are often stored and finished in it as well. I have attempted some viable solutions like using a task scheduler application for my computer. I can give it instructions forcefully close-off anything that may become a distraction for me on the computer based on a schedule you assign it. You can even ask it to temporarily disable off your internet. This solution doesnt work very well for me because I lack self-control as well. I often opt-out of this because I can never bring myself to disable any of my entertainment. I just shrug it off and lie to myself that I can deal with the distractions while studying well. This itself I believe is my biggest concern.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Eppleton Colliery essays When it closed in 1986 Eppleton Colliery was one of the oldest coal mines left in Europe. Work on a shaft at the site at Hetton Downs, in Hetton-le-Hole, was started in 1825. The mine was owned by the Hetton Coal Company, which also owned Elemore Colliery in Easington Lane. It took 8 years to finally finish this first shaft, called The Caroline pit. It took so long because soon after digging down, the miners found lots of sand and water. The work was very dangerous because the mine often caved in and flooded. Many people did not believe it was possible to have a pit there. There was 30 meters of sand and water flooded in at a rate of 1200 gallons per minute, but the Main coal seam was reached 270 metres underground on August 1st 1833. A second shaft, the Jane pit, was sunk in 1837 and reached the Busty coal seam. It was at this time that the terraced houses in Hetton Downs were built where the Eppleton miners and their families lived. A third shaft the Lindsay pit was sunk in 1874 to connect with the Hutton coal seam. Over time Eppleton Colliery changed ownership from the Hetton Coal Company to the Lambton By the end of the 19th century, Eppleton Colliery was one of the most modern in the Durham Coalfield. It employed 1100 men and boys underground and 300 on the surface. The coal seams were fairly thick and could be easily worked. The three shafts at Eppleton were ventilated by furnaces and coal fire boilers which pumped air to the underground coal faces. The daily production for coal was 3000 tons per day, making it a one of the most efficient in the country. The National Coal Board (NCB) took control of Eppleton Colliery when the pits were nationalised in 1947. Investment was increased and the latest cutting machinery was installed underground meaning that the coal no longer had to be removed by hand. In the 1950 ...
Saturday, February 29, 2020
An alien species Essay An alien species (also known as Ã¢â¬Ëexotic or nuisance speciesÃ¢â¬â¢) is the entry of any species into the ecology of which in the past it was not a part of. This species can travel to the new ecosystem from a neighboring ecosystem or from another part of the world. An alien species can cause damage or harm to animal, plant and human life thus completely disrupting the ecosystem. Two of the alien species that have seriously affected the other inhabitants of the ecosystem in the US and the other parts of North America include the Green crab and the zebra mussel. In the home ecosystem, an alien species may not be able to thrive well due to the presence of certain factors such as diseases, presence competitors, lack of space, natural enemies, etc. However in the new ecosystem, the alien species is able to thrive uncontrollable due to the absence or restrictive factors. In the past, many alien species have been introduced into various environments. Some have entered due to human factors, whereas other may have entered due to certain natural factors. Some species may have benefited the environment, which they are entered, whereas other may have seriously destroyed the native population. Invasion by alien species can have both, economic and environmental implications. The Zebra mussel is originally from the Caspian Sea and the Green crab is from Eastern Seaboard. These are classic examples of Ã¢â¬ËAquatic Nuisance SpeciesÃ¢â¬â¢ (ANS) (ACS, 2007, MDNR, 2006 & NOAA, 2007). The Zebra mussels were identified in the Great Lakes and later spread to the other parts of North America via the major rivers and waterways. They may have spread into the US from ships that have traveled through the freshwaters of Europe. They compete for plankton in the waters and in this way seriously jeopardize the food chain. They also damage parts of boats and ships. The Green crabs had spread into the San Francisco Bay region and later through California and Oregon States. They have a strong appetite for food in their territories and in this way deprive other organisms of food. The native crabs of US have seriously suffered from the invasion of the Green crab into their home territory (ACS, 2007, MDNR, 2006 & NOAA, 2007). An alien species. (2017, Feb 19).
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Explain what is meant by Financial Markets Discuss the different categories of financial markets and their rationale. Discuss the effect of the recent financial crisis on financial products and markets - Essay Example They enhance the determination of prices for the financial assets that are newly issued, and the existing stocks of the financial assets. The markets enhance the coordination and the aggregation of information on the financial assets and the money flow from the lenders to the borrowers. They allow for the transfer of risk from the investors to those who provide the funds. They enhance the liquidity by providing the financial asset holders with the chance of reselling or liquidating the assets. The financial markets are critical in enhancing the efficiency through reduction of the information and transaction costs (Richard 2005, p.43-48). The characterization of the financial markets entails consideration of the financial institution types participating in the markets and the different structures of the markets. Three sample types of financial institutions include; first, the depository institutions like banks and credit unions, which advance deposits and loans and accept deposits. The second is the contractual institutions are like the insurance companies and the pension funds while the third type is the investment institutes like the brokerage firms and investment banks (Richard 2005, p.43-48). There are different categories of the financial markets each dealing with a different instrument based on maturity and the assets backing it up. The different categories of financial markets have different customers and operations (Richard 2005, p.43-48). Below are the different categories of the financial markets. Capital markets trade in stocks, bonds and securities. Companies in capital markets raise funds for expanding businesses or establishing new ones through issuing of the securities. Capital markets mobilize the domestic saving and the reallocation of the financial resources. They provide the avenue for divestiture of the state owned enterprises, and shares are sold